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What is Endometriosis (Chocolate Cyst)?

The endometrium that constitutes the inner part of uterus and enables the menstrual bleeding will have a thickness up to 5mm within the period subsequent to the menstrual cycle. The endometrium will get thicker because of some hormones in the body and reaches up to 10 -15 mm thickness before the menstrual cycle. If the egg discharged from the ovary meets with the sperm and is fertilized, then the embryo will reach the uterus within a period as shorter as 1 week and starts to hold onto the uterus that makes preparations for pregnancy and to continue its development.

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If the egg discharged from the ovary is not fertilized by the sperm, the thickened lining of the uterus will be discharged through the vagina with the menstrual bleeding.

Although what is the cause is not known certainly, the endometrial tissue may position in another region other than uterus (e.g. ovary, inner part of abdomen, upper part of the uterus). The endometrial tissues also repeat such attitude they exhibit within the uterus every month when they position in other regions than the uterus. Just as the thickening in the uterus, there are seen thickening in other regions when they position and such thick lining will be discharged through bleeding. Such eruptions that are required not to be will cause formation of bonding between the tissues within the reproductive system and this is defined as chocolate cyst (endometriosis).

Structure of Chocolate Cyst (Endometriosis)

The cysts that are caused by the positioning of the endometrial tissues in the ovaries and the accumulation of the bleeding in the ovaries are called chocolate cysts. The dark brown color of the fluid accumulated in the cystic structure and its appearance like chocolate cause it to be called with this name.

It may be usually seen in either the right ovary or left ovary and very rarely seen in both of the ovaries. The cysts are not included among the malignant and carcinogenic cysts because of their structures. Mostly seen in 4-6 cm diameter, these cysts can reach up to 15 cm.

What are the symptoms of Chocolate Cyst (Endometriosis)?

In the cases of Chocolate cyst or aka endometrioma, the menstrual bleedings may occur with severe pain and one can feel pain during sexual intercourse.

The symptoms that can be seen because of Chocolate Cyst:

These can be listed as below:

How does Chocolate Cyst (Endometriosis) Form?

It is thought that the causes of the formation of Chocolate cyst mostly include the genetic causes. Chocolate cyst can rather be seen in 10% of the women within their reproductive period.   The cause for 20-40% of the women to experience sterility problem has been found to be the chocolate cyst.

Appearing with the menstrual bleedings with intense pain and feeling pain during the sexual intercourse, the chocolate cyst may develop without causing any symptoms in some of the cases and may be incidentally detected during a gynecological examination.

Final diagnosis for the chocolate cyst determined as a result of the examination with blood tests and ultrasonography can be established as a result of pathological examination. With their appearance relayed on the gynecological ultrasound images, it can be usually detected easily.

What are the treatment choices for Chocolate Cyst?

In the treatment of chocolate cysts, it is enabled to take out the cyst using open surgery or laparoscopy method as a standard. However, most physicians may aim at the disappearance of the cysts by considering the drug administration as appropriate.

What is the possibility of getting pregnant after Chocolate Cyst treatment?

The chance of getting pregnant after the chocolate cyst surgery for those partners experiencing the problem of infertility is about 40%. However, there are many factors that affect the process of conception. The age of woman, infertility period and various reasons causing infertility may affect the chance of conception. If the age of the patient is over 35 and infertility period is more than 7-8 years, the chance of spontaneous formation of pregnancy after the chocolate cyst surgery will get much lower. For those women who cannot get pregnant within 1 year period of time after chocolate cyst surgery, there can be enabled successful conceptions through in-vitro fertilization treatment.